Reasoning, building arguments, finding logical connections, numerical and mathematical skills.

The logic cognitive function is a fundamental part of your basis for reasoning. Since Aristotle and Ancient Greece mankind has tried to be rational in the way of figuring out what things mean, and how one issue leads to another.

Logical argumentation is seen today still in all aspects of life, from medicine where doctors use logic to create a diagnosis, to law courts where advocates argue and try to prove innocence or guilt on the basis of facts and inference.

There are different types of logic. The following are the most famous:

**Syllogistic logic**refers to formal logic where several statements explaining relationships are made and one can therefore infer new links and relationships from these. An example would be “All shoes are expensive. Boots are a type of shoe. Therefore one can say that all boots are expensive”**Informal Logic**refers more to argumentation rather than inference and it includes in it critical thinking and philosophical thought.**Mathematical Logic**is the application of the techniques of formal logic to mathematics and includes in it all the generation of theorems and formulae

References:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logic

http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/e08a.htm

http://www.mathematik.uni-muenchen.de/~schwicht/lectures/logic/ws03/ml.pdf